Material Selection Guide

Select the right material. For non-corrosive service, use design temperature to choose a readily available, cost-effective material.

Table offers a general guide. For corrosive or hydrogen service, consult a materials engineer.

Design Temp. °F °C Material Plate Pipe Forging Fitting Bolt Nut

Gryogenic Temperature

-425 ~ -321 -254 ~ -916 18Cr-18Ni SA240-304 SA312-304 SA182-304 S403-304 SA320-B8 SA194-8
SA240-304L SA312-304L SA182-304L S403-304L
18Cr-10Ni-Cb SA240-347 SA312-347 SA182-347 S403-347
16Cr-12Ni-2Mo SA240-316 SA312-316 SA182-316 S403-316
SA240-316L SA312-316L SA182-316L S403-316L
-320 ~ -151 -195 ~ -102 9 Nickel SA353 SA333-8 SA522-1 S403-WPL8 SA320-L7 SA194-4
Design Temp. °F °C Material Plate Pipe Forging Fitting Bolt Nut

Low

Temperature

-150 ~ -76 -101 ~ -60 3 1/2 Nickel SA203-D, E SA333-3(LTCS) SA350-LF3 SA420-WPL3 SA320-L7 SA194-4
-75 ~ -51 – 59 ~ -46 2 1/2 Nickel SA203-A, B
-50 ~ -21 -45 ~ -30 C–Mn–Si (CS) SA537-CL1, 2, 3 (IT) SA333-6(LTCS) SA350-LF2 SA420-WPL6
* (CS) SA516-55,60 (IT)
-20 ~ 4 -29 ~ -16 * SA516-55, 60, 65, 70 SA333-1 or 6 SA193-B7(CS) SA194-2H(CS)
5 ~ 32 -15 ~ 0 C SA283, SA285 SA53-B  SA106-B SA105    SA181-60, 70 SA234-WPB
Intermediate Temperature 33 ~ 775 1 ~ 412 * (CS) SA516-55, 60, 65, 70
Design Temp. °F °C Material Plate Pipe Forging Fitting Bolt Nut
Elevated Temperatre 776 ~ 875 413 ~ 468 Cr-1/2Mo SA204-B SA335-P1 SA182-F1 SA234-WP1 SA193-B7  (CS) SA194-2H (CS)
876 ~ 1000 469 ~ 537 Cr-1/2Mo SA387-12-1, 2 SA335-P12 SA182-F12 SA234-WP12
1 1/2Cr-1/2Mo SA387-11-1,2 SA335-P11 SA182-F11 SA234-WP11
1001 ~ 1100 538 ~ 593 2 1/4Cr-Mo SA387-22-1,2 SA335-P22 SA182-F22 SA234-WP22 SA193-B5 SA194-3
1101 ~ 1500 594 ~ 815 18Cr-10Ni-Cb SA204-347H SA312-347H SA182-347H SA403-347H SA193-B8  (SS) SA194-8     (SS)
Alloy 800 SB424 SB423 SB425 SB366
Abobe 1500 Abobe 815 Alloy 800HT, X SB443 SB444 SB446 SB366
  • CS : Carbon Steel, LTCS : Low Temperature Carbon Steel, SS : Stainless Steel, IT : Impact Test
  • Temperature provides a good basis to seclect materials for use in non-corrosive service.
  • SB424 / SB423 / SB425 : 42Ni–21.5Cr–3Mo–2.3Cu
  • SB443 / SB444 / SB446 : 60Ni–22Cr–9Mo–3.5Cb
  • SA515-60, 65, 70 / SA516-55 : C-Si
  • SA516-60, 65, 70 : C-Mn-Si

Used Temperature Limitation of ASME Code

* ST : Start Temperature of Oxidation Scaling


  • Notes
  1. Carbon steel and cast iron weaken by gratiphitization of carbides from prolonged exposure to temperatures above 800℉(427℃)
  2. The low temperature of pipes, tubing’s, forgings and fittings qualified to – 29℉
  3. Course grained C.S (e.g. A515)preferred for sustaining above 800℉
  4. A516, A537 & A707 preferred for sustaining less the low temperature.
  5. Bolt & Nuts: A193 Gr B7 & A194 Gr 7; to -40℉(-40℃) / A193 Gr B7M & A194 Gr 7; to -50℉(-46℃)
  6. Bolt & Nuts: A193 Gr B16 & A194 Gr 7; to -20℉(-29℃)
  7. 3 1/2 Ni steels have an intermittent history of welding problems. Austenitic stainless steel is a better choice. A707 Gr L7 qualified to -100℉.
  8. Castings: A352 Gr CA-6NM qualified at 100℉(38 ℃)
  9. Castings: A351 Gr CF-8N ; The lower temperature limit, without impact testing, may be -20℉(-29 ℃)
  10. Castings: A351 Gr CF-3 ; The lower temperature limit, without impact testing, may be -20℉(-29 ℃)
  11. Castings: A351 Gr CF-10 ; The lower temperature limit, without impact testing, may be -20℉(-29 ℃)
  12. The 309 SS containing carbon in excess of 0.1 wt% is not permitted in ASME Sec VIII, Div.1 at temperatures less than -50℉(-46℃), or in Div.2 at temperatures less than -20℉(-29 ℃), without impact testing.
  13. Castings: A351 Gr CH-8 ; The lower temperature limit, without impact testing, may be -20℉(-29 ℃)
  14. The 310 SS containing carbon in excess of 0.1 wt% is not permitted in ASME Sec VIII, Div.1 at temperatures less than -50℉(-46℃), or in Div.2 at temperatures less than -20℉(-29 ℃), without impact testing. The 310 SS has better spalling resistance than type 309SS.
  15. Castings: A351 Gr CK-20 ; The lower temperature limit, without impact testing, may be -20℉(-29 ℃)
  16. Castings: A351 Gr CF-8M ; The lower temperature limit, without impact testing, may be -20℉(-29 ℃)
  17. Castings: A351 Gr CF-3M ; The lower temperature limit, without impact testing, may be -20℉(-29 ℃)
  18. These materials are castings, having several different composition; they typically contain 13-35 % Ni and may contain other additions such as Si, Mn, Cu and Cr.
  19. A571 Tp D-2M may be qualified by impact test to -320℉ (-196℃). Tp 1 should be avoided in services requiring impact toughness.
  20. This material is typically used either as tubing or as a liner, with some other material servicing as pressure containment
  21. Oxidation Scaling Threshold (고온 산화스케일 시작온도): 800℉(427℃) long term, 1200℉(649℃) long term

  • General Notes.
  1. Carbon steel and cast iron weaken by gratiphitization of carbides from prolonged exposure to temperatures above 800℉(427℃)
  2. The low temperature of pipes, tubing’s, forgings and fittings qualified to – 29℉
  3. Course grained C.S (e.g. A515)preferred for sustaining above 800℉
  4. A516, A537 & A707 preferred for sustaining less the low temperature.
  5. Bolt & Nuts: A193 Gr B7 & A194 Gr 7; to -40℉(-40℃) / A193 Gr B7M & A194 Gr 7; to -50℉(-46℃)
  6. Bolt & Nuts: A193 Gr B16 & A194 Gr 7; to -20℉(-29℃)
  7. 3 1/2 Ni steels have an intermittent history of welding problems. Austenitic stainless steel is a better choice. A707 Gr L7 qualified to -100℉.
  8. Castings: A352 Gr CA-6NM qualified at 100℉(38 ℃)
  9. Castings: A351 Gr CF-8N ; The lower temperature limit, without impact testing, may be -20℉(-29 ℃)
  10. Castings: A351 Gr CF-3 ; The lower temperature limit, without impact testing, may be -20℉(-29 ℃)
  11. Castings: A351 Gr CF-10 ; The lower temperature limit, without impact testing, may be -20℉(-29 ℃)
  12. The 309 SS containing carbon in excess of 0.1 wt% is not permitted in ASME Sec VIII, Div.1 at temperatures less than -50℉(-46℃), or in Div.2 at temperatures less than -20℉(-29 ℃), without impact testing.


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